The Steve Biko Inquest

On this day, the 14th of November in 1977, the inquest into the death of Black Consciousness leader, Steve Bantu Biko, opened in Pretoria.

Steve Biko was arrested together with his associate Peter Jones in August 1977 for being outside his district after hours and because the police had ”reason to believe” he was distributing inflammatory pamphlets. Biko had also violated his banning order as he had travelled to Cape Town from the Eastern Cape, his home area. They were arrested under Section 6 of the 1967 Terrorism Act that allowed indefinite detention without trial for the purposes of interrogation in solitary confinement. He was held, naked and with little food, in a Port Elizabeth police station from August 19 to September 6 1977.

Sometime before the morning of September 7, he suffered a head injury that would eventually be cited as the cause of his death five days later.  This resulted from what would be described by the policemen, Harold Snyman (who has since died), Daniel Petrus Siebert, Jacobus Johannes Oosthuysen Beneke and Rubin Marx as a “scuffle” which erupted between them and Biko. On 12 September 1977, Stephen Bantu Biko died in a prison cell in Pretoria after having been driven there at the back of a police van naked for 700 miles.

Bikos’ was the 45th known death connected with detention by the security police since 1963. However, the case of Biko was unique as he was a rising icon, symbolising Black Consciousness, an ideology which had become the voice of the anti-Apartheid movement at a time when both the African National Congress and the Pan-Africanist Congress had been banned.

Steve Biko at the Long March To Freedom in Fountains Valley Pretoria

When the Minister of Police James Kruger announced the death, he said that it was as a result of a hunger strike. However, reports of cover-ups and medical neglect triggered so much international outrage that the Government ordered an inquest to prove that there had been ”no act of omission” involving any person in authority. It began in Pretoria’s Old Synagogue courthouse in November 1977, and lasted for three weeks. Both the running of the inquest and the quality of evidence submitted came in for extensive criticism. The security forces alleged that Biko had acted aggressively and had sustained his injuries in a scuffle, in which he had banged his head against the cell wall.

Three senior medical practitioners, District surgeons employed by the government, Doctors Benjamin Tucker and Ivor Lang, examined Biko and gave evidence during the inquest. They admitted that they thought the patient was malingering despite evidence of neurological damage. Dr Ivor Lang later admitted that he wrote out a “highly incorrect” medical certificate at the request of Colonel Goosen of the security police. In spite of this, the presiding magistrate accepted the security forces’ account of events and refused to prosecute any of those involved, concluding that no one was responsible for the death.

In 1997, then President Nelson Mandela’s government considered reopening the inquest into the death of Biko if a pending Truth Commission hearing on applications for amnesty from five of his self-confessed assailants led to new evidence.

In February 1999, Steve Biko’s family welcomed the Truth and Reconciliation Commission’s decision not to grant amnesty to the policemen involved in the death of Biko. The committee dismissed the application by the four former Port Elizabeth security policemen for amnesty for Biko’s death in custody. The TRC committee found that the policemen, did not qualify for amnesty because their actions in Biko’s death could not be associated with a political objective. The committee was also not satisfied that the men made a full disclosure of the facts.

The panel also officially declared the next of kin of Mr Biko as victims (of gross human rights violations) in relation to his killing and therefore entitled to appropriate reparation.   The committee concluded that the attack on Biko appeared to have been actuated by ill-will or spite towards him. However in 2008, AZAPO (Azanian Peoples Organisation) accused the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of not doing enough to uncover the truth behind Biko’s death. The organisation believes South Africa set a bad example to the world by not bringing perpetrators to book.

On the 40th anniversary of his death in September 2017, there were renewed calls for the inquest to be re-opened in the light of the Ahmed Timol Inquest of July 2017 which was seen by some as a precedent that needed to be followed.

References

  1. Hoffenberg. ‘The Steve Biko Inquest.’ The British Medical Journal . Vol. 1, No. 6105 (Jan. 14, 1978)

https://www.irishtimes.com/news/amnesty-application-may-reopen-steve-biko-inquest-1.28305

http://archive.spectator.co.uk/article/17th-december-1977/10/bikos-strange-inquest

http://www.nytimes.com/1985/09/12/arts/tv-review-the-biko-inquest-on-showtime.html

http://www.justice.gov.za/trc/media%5C1999%5C9902/s990217d.htm

 

 

 

Haile Selassie: A Glamorous and Decorated Emperor

Haile Selassie was crowned the Emperor of Ethiopia on this day, 2 November 1930.

He was born Tafari Makonnen Woldemikael, the son of the noted general Ras Mokonnen and the grandnephew of Emperor Menelik II. Selassie became Ethiopia’s 225th and last emperor in 1974 after he was deposed by a military coup. A brilliant student, he became a favourite of Menelik, who made him a provincial governor at 14. As a Coptic Christian, Tafari opposed Menelik’s grandson and successor, Lij Yasu, who became a Muslim convert, and in 1916 compelled his deposition and established Menelik’s daughter Zauditu as empress. Tafari was regent from 1916 to 1930 and after the empress’ mysterious death, he became emperor (1930-1974) and took the name of Haile Selassie (‘Might of the Trinity’), claiming to be a direct descendant of King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba. As a result of this, many believed he was the promised messiah hence the emergence of the Rastafarian movement.

Emperor Haile Selassie at the Long March To Freedom, Fountains Valley Resort in Pretoria.

Selassie was a highly decorated emperor as is seen in his flamboyant style of dress and the many badges that he wore. It comes as no surprise that his coronation on 2 November 1930 was a very glamorous affair. It was attended by royals and dignitaries from all over the world. One newspaper report suggested that the celebration may have incurred a cost in excess of $3,000,000 in today’s terms. Many of those in attendance received lavish gifts and in one instance, the Christian emperor even sent a gold-encased bible to an American bishop who had not attended the coronation, but who had dedicated a prayer to the emperor on the day of the coronation.

As the Commander of the armed forces he held the highest military order in Ethiopia which was that of the Sealed Marshall. After the end of World War II he ceased to wear any sort of Ethiopian ceremonial attire and although he would deviate without any particular reason he wore military attire in the main as he believed in militant resistance to colonisation and oppression. He would dress glamorously during official occasions with his many military badges, military swords, ribbons and a plummeted hat in accordance with his many Ethiopian orders. These included the Order of Solomon, Order of the Holy Trinity, Order of Menelik II, Order of the Star of Ethiopia. Grand Cordon, The Most Exalted Order of the Queen of Sheba Knight Grand Cross, The Imperial Order of the Holy Trinity Knight Grand Cross, The Imperial Order of Emperor Menelik II Negus (Knight Grand Cross), The Imperial Order of the Star of Ethiopia, Haile Selassie Medal of War, Eritrean Medal of Haile Selassie I among scores of others.

His sculpture at the Long March to Freedom procession at Fountains Valley is just as decorated as he was, courtesy of artist Izidro Duarte who worked hard to ensure that the statue represented the emperor as accurately as possible.

Follow these links to learn more about Selassie’s many medals and honours- http://gmic.co.uk/topic/15150-what-medals-did-emperor-haile-selassie-wear/?page=2#comment-368575

http://www.coleccionesmilitares.com/cintas/diario/haileselassie.pdf

GLEN LEWIS SHOOTS MUSIC VIDEO AT THE LONG MARCH TO FREEDOM!

Veteran radio broadcaster, former Metro FM DJ and musician Glen Lewis recently graced us with his presence at Fountains Valley Resort in Pretoria to shoot his soon to be released music video for his upcoming single, Healing.

Glen Lewis poses with Walter and Albertina Sisulu during a break

Lewis said that he chose to shoot his video at the Long March To Freedom procession because he felt that the icons represented the road to healing and were a symbol of the need and possibility of healing in our nation. He thought the site would also provide unique visuals which are relevant to the theme of his song. The video is also of significance as it helps to inform the public of the existence of the Long March To Freedom as it educates the youth and the world as a whole.

Lewis also expressed his love for the statues of Steve Biko and Solomon Mahlangu. He however, spent most of the shooting at the back with the Kings and chiefs who were the pioneers of the struggle for freedom. He promised to spread the word about the National Heritage Monument and we hope that you spread the word too!

We will definitely share the link to the video as soon as it is released.

2017: THE YEAR OF OLIVER REGINALD TAMBO!

A great giant who strode the globe like a colossus has fallen. The gentle voice whose measure voice of reason shook the throne of tyrants has been silenced. Oliver lived because he had surrendered his very being to the people. Nelson Mandela at Oliver Tambos’ funeral, 1993.

2017 marks the centenary celebration of Oliver Reginald Tambo, the longest serving president of the African National Congress who steered the anti-Apartheid struggle through thirty years of exile. He was also a Lawyer, Co-founder of the ANC Youth League, Secretary General and Deputy President of the ANC and Head of the ANC’s Mission in Exile.

Born on the 27th of October 1917, it has for long been a tradition to celebrate his legacy on the day of his birth. Just short of a year ago, in recognition of October as ‘Oliver Tambo Month’, President Jacob Zuma called on the ANC to “use the next 12 months leading to [his] centenary… to draw the best lessons from his life and to understand his rare qualities.” As a result, the year 2017 was declared the year of Oliver Tambo, a call to remember and give the deserved recognition to this hero who sacrificed three decades of his life for the freedom of South Africa.

OR Tambo at the forefront of the Long March To Freedom at Fountains Valley Resort.

After the banning of the ANC in 1960, Tambo was sent abroad by the organisation to lead the military resistance and seek support for the struggle against apartheid.  As acting president from 1967 to 1969 and president from 1969- 1991, he managed the growing number of ANC exiles and the uMkhonto we Sizwe (MK) military camps (the armed wing of the ANC).

While abroad, he also raised funds for the organisation and set up ANC offices in different countries. Tambo explained the struggle against apartheid to the world, mobilising support for the struggle like had never been done before in the history of the organisation. As a result, he got a lot of support from both Eastern and Western Europe even though the two regions had opposing ideas. He was able to keep the ANC together and ensure that it remained a formidable force on the political arena even though he was in exile for most of his time as president. After the unbanning of the ANC in 1990, Tambo and his family returned to a soon to be free South Africa.

His dedication to the struggle and hard work eventually led to Tambos’ health deteriorating, he refused to take time to rest in spite of suffering from bouts of illness. He sadly died in 1993, a year before democracy finally came in South Africa.

Communities across South Africa are celebrating the year of O.R Tambo. As part of the celebrations of Oliver Tambo’s centenary, the South African Reserve Bank, along with South African Mint and the Oliver & Adelaide Tambo Foundation launched the Oliver Tambo centenary coins. On the 27th of October 2017, former president Thabo Mbeki will also be delivering the OR Tambo memorial lecture at the University of the Witwatersrand in honour of his priceless contribution to the struggle for freedom.

The Oliver Tambo International Airport unveiled a 2.5 metre statue of O.R Tambo on the 19th of October 2017 in honour of the struggle icon. A sculpture of Oliver Tambo also stands at the forefront of The Long March To Freedom procession at Fountains Valley in Pretoria alongside stalwarts, Nelson Mandela and Walter Sisulu. This indeed is a befitting and timely tribute to such a giant in the struggle for freedom.

 

 

 

Heritage Month Highlights

The month of September was packed with exciting events and developments that made it a memorable celebration of our heritage at Fountains Valley in the City of Tshwane. The excitement around Spring day on the 1st and the new Instagram frames were an instant hit among visitors signalling the increasing popularity of the Long March To Freedom as one of the leading tourist and heritage destinations in the country.

Young couple poses with instagram phrame and chief Maqoma in the background.

Heritage Day, held every year on the 24th September, was definitely the main highlight of the month. Tumo, one of the Long March tour guides, was on site on the day and said of his experience with the many visitors,

On Heritage Day South Africans proved they were not Heritage Refugees by flooding in their numbers to the Long March to Freedom wearing different cultural regalia … It was so spectacular that I wished dressing in our traditional clothing would be an everyday thing. (Tumo Bopape. Long March to Freedom site guide)

Many visitors found the Long March to Freedom so inspiring they had to resort to song and dance to honour their heroes. For example, during heritage weekend the baPedi could be seen dressed in their traditional garb, dancing around King Sekhukhune. Tumo said people were decked out in different traditional attires that would complement the type of fashion displayed by some of the Long March figures who themselves are depicted in traditional dress, most notably Chiefs Faku, Tshwane, Pilane and Dalisile.

The National Heritage Monument was extremely excited to welcome King Haile Selassie as the newest addition to the Long March To Freedom during this festive month. He is one of the most colourful and greatly anticipated sculptures to date and a most valued addition to the almost 100 heroes on site. Other ‘newcomers’ to the site included King Cetshwayo and Chiefs Langalibalele, Doman and Sekhukhune, four of our sculptures that had been on loan to the Castle of Good Hope in Cape Town for the 350-year celebrations. They were now safely returned to their rightful place at Fountains Valley. King Cetshwayo became the centre of attention as he came new and improved from the foundry at Sculpture Casting Services. He now had a more colourful blanket which site guide Momo thought made him the best sculpture among all the statues and her all out favourite so far.

The Mamelodi  Sundowns Junior Academy also graced us with their presence towards the end of the month. The visit, according to Alfred Mahapa was in remembrance of former Robben Island inmates and the role of football in their lives in prison. The youngsters had a lot of passion and willingness to learn and celebrated the heroes in song. It was inspiring to watch them sing around the statue of Chris Hani as they honoured him.

 

Youngsters from the Sundowns Academy enjoy their time at the Long March To Freedom.

We also commemorated the deaths and births of some of our most prominent icons. We celebrated Yusuf Dadoo’s birthday on the 5th of September and commemorated the 40th anniversary of Steve Biko’s death on the 12th of September, an important event to celebrate as many visitors remember his contribution to the struggle through his ideologies. Interestingly, Ray Alexander, a heroine of trade unionism, another bronze figure in our procession, also passed away on the 12th of September. An eventful month for the Long March to Freedom, where we consider every day, Heritage Day.

 

 

 

 

The Long March To Democracy

Today the National Heritage Monument celebrates the International Day of Democracy which is a United Nations observance day. However, it is not a public holiday. The United Nations General Assembly resolved on November 8, 2007, to make September 15 the annual date to promote and raise awareness on the centrality of democracy in our systems of government today.

The Long March to Freedom procession is in itself a celebration of democracy and the struggle it took to achieve it.  It brings South Africa’s’ struggle to life through almost a hundred life size bronze figures which will grow into a procession of over 400 bronze statues over time. It represents the epic journey to freedom walked by iconic leaders through four epochs, demonstrating a protracted struggle which began long before the introduction of Apartheid. It began with the chiefs who led the Wars of Resistance in the 17th century, followed by early activists and intellectuals of the 1900s, the revolutionaries of the Defiance era after 1948 and lastly the struggle period from 1960 to 1994.

The preamble of the United Nations resolution on democracy affirmed that:

  • While democracies share common features, there is no single model of democracy and that democracy does not belong to any country or region.
  • Democracy is a universal value based on the freely-expressed will of people to determine their own political, economic social and cultural systems, and their full participation in all aspects of life.

According to the Economist Intelligence Unit, countries can be classified into four categories which are full democracies, flawed democracies, hybrid regimes and authoritarian regimes. In 2016, the United States was downgraded from a full to a flawed democracy. By the end of 2016, only 5.5 % of countries in the world were classified as Full Democracies.

This year’s theme of democracy and conflict prevention focuses on the critical need to strengthen democratic institutions to promote peace and stability. The day is observed by many countries all over the world. In 2015, to mark International Day of Democracy, the International Foundation for Electoral Systems (IFES) Pakistan organized a seminar on civil society engagement in social and political life in Pakistan. In Australia this year, one can participate by wearing black and bringing posters to Brisbane.

In spite of the fact that the day is not a public holiday which might make it less known and celebrated  than other observance days, the National Heritage Monument seeks to bring it to the fore this year. The bronze figure procession at Fountains Valley Recreation Resort, tells the compelling story of how the journey to Democracy which reached its height in 1994 with the first democratic elections, began as far back as the 1650s. Over three centuries before Nelson Mandela endured 27 years at Robben Island, rebel chiefs such as Autshumato who was banished to the Island twice in the 1650s had paved the path to resistance and  struggle which their descendants was to walk.  In 1819, Makhanda, advisor to Xhosa Chief Ndlambe, Regent of the amaRharhabe, was also transported to Robben Island along with David Stuurman who had recently been recaptured by the British for leading resistance to colonial encroachment. We also celebrate heroines such as Harriette Colenso, an advocate of democracy who became the first woman to give testimony before the British House of Commons when she spoke on King Dinuzulu kaCetshwayos’ behalf. This was when he was arrested and charged for alleged involvement in the Anti-Poll Tax Rebellion led by Bhambatha. The National Heritage Monument is indeed a place where one sees the time, sacrifice and dedication that our predecessors gave for democracy to be achieved.

 

 

eTV Visits the Long March To Freedom!

The month of August is a time when we celebrate iconic women who contributed to South Africa’s liberation. On the 9th of August 1956, over 20 000 women from all walks of life marched to the Union Buildings to protest against the carrying of passes. This march, is the inspiration behind Women’ Day as never before in South African history had women risen on such a large scale to fight injustice. We also celebrate every woman who fought for justice even before and after 1956.

It was a day of fun, education and games as the eTV crew and presenters visited Fountains Valley Resort. This was in line with preparations for Women’s month, whereby they were recording inserts for the eTV shows Frenzy and Sisterhood. Our tour guide, Tumo kicked off the day by giving the presenters Walterique and Nkanyiso a tour of the statues, explaining why they were so important. He explained that Fountains Valley is a resort in which one finds an amazing procession of South African heroes known as the Long March To Freedom.

Tumo explaining the Long March to Freedom to Walterique and Nkanyiso

One of the figures that captured the attention of the presenters was Queen Labotsibeni. They were fascinated to learn that she was a powerful woman who took over the Swazi throne after the death of her husband at a time when few African kingdoms allowed women to rule. She went on to form political alliances with the ANC and as a result was inducted as one of its Deputy Presidents. This was again a first as in its early years, the ANC, then called the South African Native National Congress, did not allow full membership of women to the party. This convinced the presenters that indeed she deserved to be honoured and recognised during the Women’s month. Annie Silinga was also one of the significant otherwise lesser known struggle icons that the presenters got to know about. Her refusal to carry a pass for all her life really made her stand out.

The bubbly Walterique went on to interview our Heritage Manager Sarah regarding the technical process of making a bronze statue. Sarah explained that although professional and experienced artists make the statues, there is also a mentorship programme where students from Tshwane University of Technology for example are given an opportunity to make statues and learn new skills as well. Asked which of the statues her favourite was, Sarah chose Lillian Ngoyi. She explained that Ngoyi was a powerful woman because she chose to lead women during the struggle when conditions were extremely difficult and very few would have made that choice under the same circumstances. Lillian Ngoyi was the principal leader of the Women’s march against passes.

There were many discussions off camera as well which showed that the presenters and crew were not only interested in recording but were very much captivated by the Long March to Freedom. The sun was scorching hot and the directors and cameramen ensured that recordings were perfect by asking for a retake here and there. However this did not in any way dampen spirits as the presenters found the energy to play games which they were taught by Tumo.
There is no doubt that the show will be great.

The Frenzy episode which features the LongMarchToFreedom will be broadcast on the 15th of August on eTV at 16h00 and again on Friday the 18th of August at 16h00.

‘The hour of youth has struck!’: Anton Lembede and The Formation of the ANC Youth League

Today Anton Lembede would have celebrated his 70th birthday, had he not died so young at 33. We honour this founding member and first president of the ANC Youth League in the #LongMarchToFreedom. Visit him and other Young Lions, #Tambo, #Mandela and #Sisulu at #FountainsValley, Pretoria.

‘The hour of youth has struck!.’ So proclaimed a flyer issued by the Provisional Executive Committee of the newly formed ANC Youth League, advertising the organisation’s first conference to be held in September 1944.

The Youth League had launched six months earlier, at Johannesburg’s Bantu Social Centre in March 1944 but it was at the September conference that Anton Lembede was elected from among his equally dynamic peers to become first president of the ANC’s youth wing.

Outstanding because of his intellect, qualifications and passion, the dynamic leader invented and was greatly driven by the ideal ‘Africanism.’ He had a deep and almost fanatical love for Africa and would, on occasion remark that, ‘I live for the freedom of my people, and I shall die for Africa’s freedom’. It is no surprise that the motto of the Youth League was ‘Africa’s’ cause must triumph!’

According to Lembede’s close friend and housemate Ashby P. Mda, the first person to mention or suggest the founding of a Youth League was actually Manasseh T. Moerane. However, Moerane was not to take a leading role in the formation of the League and subsequently has not been noted in popular histories of the ANCYL.

Both founding members, Lembede and Mda had become close friends in 1943 and had to share accommodation as a result of their low wages. Their time together was spent engaging in intellectual discussions which gave birth to the ideals that were to shape the organisation and future generations to this day.

Mda acknowledged that Lembede ‘took his word in many things’ and was very respectful and loving toward him. He never wanted to clash openly with him, but in private they had intense arguments. He would attack others publicly but was to Mda ‘as soft as a newly wedded maiden’. This gave others the impression that Mda was steering Lembede from behind the scenes, but in fact they clashed in privately on many issues of principle.

Bronze statue of Anton Lembede at Fountains Valley Resort in Pretoria

In the 1930s the ANC, under the leadership of Alfred Bitini Xuma, had been revived but its methods remained cautious and respectful towards the white elite. Every resolution of the ANC started with statements like, ‘We pray the Minister… We humbly request…’  Annoyed by this pacifism, this group of young intellectuals became agitated and demanded a shift towards a more militant style of politics. Jordan Ngubane, a youth leader regarded as a philosopher, together with Lembede and Mda drafted the League Manifesto, although Lembedes’ ideas are said to have dominated the document.

 Although Xuma was worried that the manifesto was disrespectful as it was scathingly critical of the senior ANC, he still gave the youth support. The document pointed out that the formation of the Youth League was based on criticisms against the ANC which was seen as elitist and ‘not an efficiently organised bloc’, lacking a ‘constructive programme to enforce the repeal of all oppressive legislation’. The Youth League aimed at imparting to the ANC a national character rooted in African nationalism and African self-determination.

Many older ANC leaders dismissed the League as irresponsible and cheeky, partly because Lembede was extremely passionate and dogmatic about his beliefs. However, his influence was shown when the moderate Xuma lost the presidency in 1949 to James Moroka who was more supportive of the Programme of Action presented by Lembede in the same year.

Sadly, Lembede died prematurely on the 30th of July 1947 at the age of 33. Mda took over leadership and formed a working committee consisting of Walter Sisulu, Oliver Tambo and Nelson Mandela. These, as history has shown went on to further prove that indeed the hour of youth had struck.

References

Glaser Clive. The ANC Youth League. Johannesburg: Jacana Media, 2012.

Karis Thomas and G.M Carter. From Protest to Challenge: A Documentary History of African Politics in South Africa, 1882-1964. Vol 2. California: Hoover Institution Press, 1979.

Statement during the Anton Lembede Memorial Lecture at the University of Fort Hare. 10 October 2002. http://www.ancyl.org.za/search.php?search=Anton+Lembede+&submit=search&sa=

Gerhart, Gail M. Interview with Mda, A.P. 01 January 1970. http://www.aluka.org/action/showMetadata?doi=10.5555/AL.SFF.DOCUMENT.gerhart0016